A teaching method is made up of the concepts and strategies for instruction that teachers employ to help students learn what they want to learn. These tactics are influenced by the subject matter to be taught as well as the learner’s personality. For a teaching approach to be effective and suitable, it must be related to the learner’s characteristics and the sort of learning it is intended to facilitate. According to Davis (1997), not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn must be considered when designing and selecting teaching methods. The trend in today’s schools is to foster a lot of innovation.

There are many teaching methods. Some are highlighted below: 

  1. Lecture by teacher 
  2. Class discussion conducted by teacher 
  3. Role play 
  4. Field trip
  5. Project method 
  6. Assignment Method 
  7. Recitation oral questions by teacher answered orally by students 
  8. Discussion groups conducted by selected student chairpersons 
  9. Lecture-demonstration by teacher 
  10. Lecture-demonstration by another instructor(s) from a special field (guest speaker) 
  11. Presentation by a panel of instructors or students 
  12. Presentations by student panels from the class: class invited to participate 
  13. Student reports by individuals 
  14. Student-group reports by committees from the class 

In our school, we use a variety of teaching approaches to teach various disciplines. Methods that are appropriate and desirable for one subject in one school may not be appropriate and desired for another. Teaching in a school with well-equipped audio-visual learning aids and a plan for individually prescribed learning programs, for example, may necessitate different teaching methods than in a rural school with a set schedule of classes and programs.

Teaching methods | Lecture Method 

The lecture method is automatic, allowing little or no opportunity for active student interaction and providing little or no feedback to the teacher on the efficacy of his presentation. In the Nigerian secondary school system, the lecture method is widely employed, but it does not result in a visible shift in attitude, and students’ memory of material after the lecture is modest in terms of content.

Advantages of lecture method 

  • It enables a teacher to delve deeply into the subject at hand.
  • It is inexpensive to run. 
  • It is better suited to adult groups since it necessitates the learners’ ability to integrate knowledge as it is provided.
  • It can be used to manage big groups of students.
  • In every type of classroom setting, the teacher can deliver his lecture.
  • It could be in the open or in a hall with no instructional aids, such as a sports pavilion.
  • It’s a good way to start a new discussion.

Disadvantages of lecture Methods 

  • It is not appropriate for children, particularly those in elementary and secondary schools; if the material being discussed is uninteresting, the student may fall asleep in class.
  • It does not encourage students to study economic principles in a meaningful way.
  • Because students are passive listeners who do not participate in the teaching/learning process, it is difficult for them to retain information.
  • Because students do not participate in class, the teacher may become the center of attention.
  • It promotes rote learning(memorisation of information) rather than deep knowledge by encouraging information memorization.

Suggestions for the Use of Lecture Method 

  • It should be used in combination with other teaching methods to encourage students to participate fully and actively in the class.
  • The teacher should avoid covering too many topics because this causes boredom and misunderstanding among the students.
  • Ask students questions and give them time to offer remarks in class to encourage their participation.
  • The teacher should summarize and offer homework at the end of each lecture.

Teaching methods | Assignment Method 

It is a system in which teachers assign students certain sections of a textbook as homework. The teacher would normally instruct the students to read the allotted part and respond to the questions that follow. The students’ responses will be used in the following class. Each student will be called upon to read their responses to the questions. The textbook assignment method is a recent concept that aims to determine the level of students’ grasp of the contents taught. The exercises’ goal is to get students to look up extra information in order to refute what they’ve learned in class.

Teaching methods | Discussion Method 

Talking about something from many perspectives is what discussion entails. It normally takes place in a classroom setting with a group of people. Discussion is a two-way interaction between the teacher and the students, or between the students themselves. In this situation, a problem or topic for the lesson is provided for discussion, and the teacher assists in channeling the students’ opinions toward the lesson’s goal. The lecture method differs from the discussion method in that the lecture method involves a one-way flow of communication from the teacher to the students, whereas the discussion method involves various flows of communication from the class members. The discussion method fosters active engagement in class from students. While the teacher moderates, students generate a variety of ideas that will lead to a solution to the problem. Every student should have background knowledge of what is to be addressed in order for the discussion method to be successful; otherwise, it will be a waste of time, which may result in students losing interest in the class.

Planned Discussion 

This method is similar to the assignment method, in which students are given topics to read and tasks to complete. The report is reviewed in class, and such reports necessitate the participation of all students in the class, as well as meticulous planning by the teachers on how to handle the topic. The teacher must lead the conversation in a democratic manner.

Group Discussion 

The teacher can prepare a group discussion to encourage students to communicate with one another or to work together to accomplish a common goal. This can be accomplished in one of two ways: a whole-class discussion or a small-group discussion. The teachers arrange the class in a circle, semi-circle, or square with him/her at the center and all the students facing him/her for the complete class discussion. This is frequently done so that the teacher can see and encourage all of the students to participate fully in the conversation from his or her vantage point in the middle. On the other hand, the teacher must divide the class into small groups of ten students each for the small group discussion. The goal is to guarantee that issues or topics are effectively discussed; typically, each group is required to elect a leader. The leader guides the conversation, while the recorder takes notes on everything that is said. The teacher is required to lend an ear to the students’ debates. Group leaders or recorders present their summary for the class at the end of the session.

Advantages of Discussion method 

  • It allows the teacher to gain a better understanding of the abilities and attitudes of his students.
  • Students are given the opportunity to voice their own opinions on a variety of topics.
  • When they make mistakes, they have the opportunity to be rectified.
  • It has the potential to help people build leadership skills.
  • Individual thinking and brainstorming are aided.
  • It helps students acquire self-control.
  • It aids in the development of self-reliance, tolerance, respect for others’ viewpoints, and leadership abilities.
  • Problem-solving is aided by the discussion method.

Disadvantages of Discussion Methods 

  • When the topic is unfamiliar, discussion tactics are unappealing.
  • Because each student will be given the opportunity to contribute to the conversation, it will take a long time.
  • It is unfavorable to students with limited language skills and introverts. 

Teaching methods | Role Play Method 

Role-playing is a classroom exercise that depicts a specific subject or circumstance for study and discussion. There is usually no script to memorize in role-playing; it does not require extensive preparation, and there may be no rehearsals.

A subject or issue of interest is chosen for role-playing, and students simply act out the roles that the play is supposed to convey. Students have the option of choosing the roles they want to portray. Students should not be coerced into roles. Following the presentation, it is critical to discuss the role-play and ask pertinent questions in order to highlight the major learning characters. Role-playing is beneficial in the formation of positive attitudes toward social issues as well as the modification of learners’ behaviors. It also aids in the development of a student’s vocabulary and expression skills. The biggest consequence of role-playing is that students who play unpleasant characters are stigmatized.


Teaching methods | Field Trip Method 

Any learning activity carried out by a group of students outside of the classroom under the strict supervision of the teacher is referred to as a field trip. It entails taking students outside of the classroom to get a firsthand look at what happens in our surroundings or in a real-life event. Students learn via outside activities and observations during a field trip or expedition. It could last anywhere from a few hours to several weeks. A field trip could consist of a simple stroll from the school to nearby public locations of interest such as the King’s Place, railway station, airport, and post office. Field trip experiences are frequently long lasting and difficult for students to forget. The aim of a field trip must be clearly specified, and authorization from the school authority, parents, and the destination must be acquired. If the trip will continue longer than one day, appropriate planning for lodging, food, and other amenities is required. It’s also a good idea to include a first-aid kit. During the journey, the teacher must keep a close eye on the students. A guide’s aid is also required. Students should discuss and report their findings after the tour. Field trips and excursions allow students to make firsthand observations and strengthen their sharp observation skills. However, it is time-consuming; it could be expensive and disruptive especially when the field trip lasts several days. 

Advantage of Field Trip 

  • Students benefit from field trips because they get personal understanding of what is going on in our world.
  • It aids in the establishment and maintenance of student interest in the subject.
  • Because the experiences are long lasting, it aids in information retention.
  • It can aid in the development of a student’s interest in specific professions.

Disadvantages of Field Trip 

  • If not carefully planned, it could be a waste of time and resources.
  • It is difficult to carry out from the outside, especially when it involves a long distance; accidents may occur during the field trip.
  • It leads in additional financial costs for the school, parents, and even students.
  • If precautions are not taken, student discipline may be compromised.

Suggestions for the Effective use of Field Trip 

The Economics teacher should first speak with the school administration about the possibility of a field trip. If it involves an organization/industry, he/she should write a formal letter to the Chief Executive/Managing Director requesting permission to visit. He or she should talk to the students about the purpose of the trip, their role in it, and what they’ll need for it. The students should be informed about the location’s guiding rules, dangers, what to watch for, and how to report their findings. If any of the students have minor injuries, the teacher should have a first aid kit on hand. If the trip will take more than one day, the teacher should plan precise transportation and lodging arrangements. Examine the students after the trip using the specimens and information gathered. This must be done in conjunction with the trip report in order to promote the sharing of the trip’s experiences.

Teaching methods | Project Method 

A project can be defined as anything accomplished under students’motivation. Projects are planned activities in which students are free to examine or conduct independent research. It can be used on a single student or a group of students for individualized education. A project could be assigned to five students, 10 students, or the entire class. Students plan physical actions that result in physical production as the teacher helps them in the project method. Construction, displays, murals, charts, exhibitions, reviews, model making, and other activities are all part of the project. The project method is a methodology for involving students in a task-centered learning activity that produces a tangible outcome or end product. Preparing wall charts, project booklets, specific inquiries, and making models are all examples of how to use the project method for teaching and learning. Everything must be done by the students under the project method, and the teacher’s role is limited to inspiring and guiding them. 

Advantages of Project Method 

  • The project method includes all levels of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains.
  • Students can help plan the project, which will increase their interest and motivation.
  • Because the emphasis is on “doing,” the student can build their own initiative. The students lay a strong emphasis on doing.
  • It fosters responsibility and initiative in students.
  • Students have a better grasp of how to study.
  • It enables students to conduct in-depth research on the subject at hand.
  • It provides opportunities to hone leadership skills. 

Disadvantages of Project Method 

  • It takes a significant amount of time.
  • It might be costly.
  • It throws off the schedule.
  • It is really too tough to assess.
  • It necessitates the long-term retention of students’ interest.
  • It is advantageous to students who have the ability to study independently.

Suggestions for Effective use of project method 

Provide students with all of the information they need to complete the project successfully. Spread the assignment out over a long amount of time to allow them to get a thorough understanding of the subject. Ensure that the project’s goal is aligned with the instructional sequence. Develop a marking procedure to ensure objectivity in the creation and scoring of the project into the sequence of instruction.

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By Teezab

His name is Tiamiy Abdulbazeet. He is a writer and loves to write about Education, and all types of news. If he is not writing, then know that he is playing a game!😃

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